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The child was treated at the roadside by medics and transferred to Birmingham Children's Hospital for specialist emergency care but died later of her injuries, West Midlands Police said.
The girl's mother, who is in her 30s, is being treated for back injuries although they are not believed to be serious.
The girl was hit by a Land Rover on Lyng Lane in West Bromwich, West Midlands.
Officers have interviewed the 4x4's driver, who stopped at the scene and is continuing to assist the investigation.
Sergeant Paul Hughes, of the police collision investigation unit, said: “`We are keen to speak to anyone who was in the area at the time and may have witnessed the collision.
“This is a tragic event and we are currently following up a number of inquiries.
“It is important that we piece together the events leading up to the collision and I would appeal directly to anyone with any information, no matter how small it may seem, to contact myself or any member of my team.
“The mother continues to be treated for her injuries, which are not believed to be serious.
“Specialist officers have been appointed to the family who continue to liaise with them at this sad time.''